Books of Vedas & Vedangas

The Vedas have several books under the headings of Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. To understand these Vedas, there is a need to study some more books, called Vedangas. The Vedangas are declared as six in number, and include Siksha, Vyakarana, Chandas, Niruktam, Jyotisha and Kalpa. Among them, the Kalpa, Jyotisha and Chandas involve mathematics extensively. In particular, The Kalpa, dealing with the preparation of altars, or yajnavedikas, utilizes several Geometrical principles, which are called as Sulba sutras. Presently few of them traced are in the names of Boudhayana, Apastamba, Katyayana and others.The Jyotisha is made of three parts, siddhanta, jataka and samhita. Among them, the siddhanta bhaga involves intensive mathematical calculations related to the relative positions of the planets and other celestial bodies. For this they utilize spherical geometry, and Trikonamiti, or alternatively called as Trigonometry.

Because of the vast coverage of mathematics and its significance, the Jyotisha is adored from times immemorial. Lagadha, the great mathematician of India of about 1500b.c., states in his book of Vedanga Jyotisha that

Yathaa sikhaa mayuraanaam naagaanaam manayo yathaa Tadvadvedaanga saastraanaam ganitam (/jyotisham) muurdhani sthitam

“Like the crest of a peacock, and like the gems on the hoods of serpants, the mathematics (Jyotisha) lies at the top of all Vedanga Sastras.”

Similarly the Chandas has lot of knowledge related to the mathematics like permutations and combinations.

Thus lot of mathematical principles were discovered by our sages, who include Surya, Pitamaha, Vasishtha, Medhatithi, Garga, Lomasa and several others.